Diagram of Production Possibility Frontier. The production possibilities curve is also called the production possibility frontier, because any point beyond the curve represents an impossible situation. Kerala Higher Secondary School Study Notes|Production Possibility Curve January 27, 2019 A production–possibility frontier ( PPF ) or production possibility curve ( PPC ) is a curve which shows various combinations of set of two goods which can be produced with the given resources and technology where the given resources are fully and efficiently utilized per unit time. A point on the production possibility frontier represents: A. The PP curve shows the options that are obtainable, or simply the production possibilities. Course Code. The rate at which an amount of product is sacrificed for producing the amount of another product is called Marginal Rate of Transformation (MRT). Production Possibilities Curves. The issue of choice, and the concept of opportunity cost associated with the economic problem, can be illustrated by using the production possibility frontier (or curve). A production possibility curve is a curve measuring the maximumcombination of outputs that can be obtained from a given number of inputs. Professor. A production possibility curve measures the maximum output of two goods using a fixed amount of input. Shifts In The Production Possibility Curve: Rightward Shift: Reasons for rightward shift: The quantity of resources available for production can increase e.g. 1800-212-7858 / 9372462318. An opportunity cost will usually arise whenever an economic agent chooses between alternative ways of allocating scarce resources. Production Possibilities Curve (Frontier) Notes download report. If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website. Chapter 1 Notes: Production Possibilities Curve. Given 2 assumptions: 1. In other words, the economy has to choose which goods to produce and in what quantities. Fixed resources 2. PPF Curves – Production Possibility Frontiers . Each transformation curve or production possibility curve serves as the locus of production combinations which can be achieved through allocated quantities of resources. What is the Production Possibilities Curve? Page: of 2. Suppose an organisation decided to produce two goods A and B with its available resources. production possibility curve is a straight line, opportunity cost is. The unattainable combination is F as it is outside the PPC. Because it shows all of the different possibilities we can do, we can get. A production possibility frontier is used to illustrate the concepts of opportunity cost, trade-offs and also show the effects of economic growth. ishan wason. An opportunity cost will usually arise whenever an economic agent chooses between alternative ways of allocating scarce resources. The basic economic problems and their nature can be explained with the help of a diagram named the production possibility curve(PPC). But since they are scarce, a choice has to be made between the alternative goods that can be produced. The following table gives the various production possibilities. Economic Planning in India: Production Possibility Curve and Problem of Allocation of Resources Doorsteptutor material for IAS/Mains/Optional Economics is prepared by world's top subject experts: Get detailed illustrated notes covering entire syllabus : point-by-point for high retention. A production possibility frontier (PPF) is a curve or a boundary which shows the combinations of two or more goods and services that can be produced whilst using all of the available factor resources efficiently. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about Economics. A production possibility frontier is used to illustrate the concepts of opportunity cost, trade-offs and also show the effects of economic growth. To decide what to produce and in what quantities, it is first necessary to know what is obtainable. It helps a democratic nation to focus and shift a major amount of resources in the production of public sector goods instead of private sector goods. Provided by: CoralSpri2. onstant. The diagram or graph explains how many units of goods a company can produce if all the resources are utilized produc… School. Overall you need 80% … So society has to decide about the goods to produce: wheat, cloth, roads, electrical goods, etc. Moving from Point A to B will lead to an increase in services (21-27). And that curve we call, once again-- fancy term, simple idea-- our production possibilities frontier. Production Possibility curve (PPC) shows the maximum combinations of goods and services that can be produced by an economy in a given time period with its limited resources. The opportunity cost of such a decision is the value of the next best alternative use of scarce resources. York University. Economics: The Core Issues. by Anu J. If it is decided to produce more of certain goods, the production of certain other goods has to be curtailed. The production possibility frontier helps economists analyse trade-offs. A production possibility curve is drawn from a production possibility table by plotting in a two-dimensional table the points that each choice represents. The. The following diagram (21.2) illustrates the production possibilities set out in the above table. A production possibility frontier (PPF) is a curve or a boundary which shows the combinations of two or more goods and services that can be produced whilst using all of the available factor resources efficiently. Category: Tags: curve | owls | possibility | production. For example, the combined output of the two goods can neither be at U nor H. (See Fig. What we cannot do is something that's beyond this. The productive resources of the community can be used for the production of various alternative goods. At C the production possibilities are 12,000 quintals of wheat and 200u quintals of cotton, as we move from A to F, we give up some units of wheat for some units of cotton For instance, moving from A to B, we sacrifice 1000 quintals of wheat to produce 1000 quintals of cotton, and so on. Production Possibility Curves Opportunity cost (or economic cost or real cost) is not the money we pay for the want, but the alternative want that we have to forego. 4.3 Shape of the Production Possibility Curve The PPC is concave to the origin because the opportunity cost of producing each good increases as its quantity increases as resources are not equally suitable for producing different goods. Production Possibility Curve ,Introduction to Microeconomics - Get topics notes, Online test, Video lectures, Doubts and Solutions for CBSE Class 11-commerce on TopperLearning. In the graph, if all the resources are used to produce Schools then there will be no Hospitals. Department. 11/27 Warm-up Questions. A production possibility frontier (PPF), production possibility curve (PPC), or production possibility boundary (PPB) is a curve which shows various combinations of the amounts of two goods which can be produced within the given resources and technology. Increasing MRT implies increasing slope of PPC. Points within the curve show when a country’s resources are not being fully utilised The productive resources can be used for the production of various alternative goods. The manufacturing of most goods requires a … For example, as more resources are sh. But since they are scarce, a choice has to be made between the alternative goods that can be produced. The production possibility curve represents graphically alternative produc­tion possibilities open to an economy. point on the PPC depends on the desires of society. The productive resources of the community can be used for the production of various alternative goods. It is used to explain the basic economic concepts: … Chapter 1 Notes: Production Possibilities Curve. PPF primarily represents a hypothetical boundary between the maximum combination of goods and services that an economy can produce with the available resources and technology. 4 Key Assumptions NON-LINEAR PPF AND CHANGING OPPORTUNITY COST. In economics, the Production Possibility Curve provides an overview of the maximum output of a good that can be produced in an economy by using available resources with respect to quantities of other goods produced. Home > CIE IGCSE > Economics 0455/0987 > IGCSE Economics Notes > Basic Economic Problem > Production Possibility Curve. Search. 2018/2019 It is also known as Production Possibility Frontier (PPF) or transformation curve. As shown in Figure, the attainable combinations are A, B, C, D and E from the given resources. The Normal Distribution. For example, when an economy produces on the PPF curve, increasing the output of goods will have an opportunity cost of fewer services. The Normal Curve. What we cannot do is something that's beyond this. Nov 18, 2020 - Production Possibility Curve B Com Notes | EduRev is made by best teachers of B Com. Avoid resits and get better grades with material written specifically for your studies. A production possibilities graph (PPG) is a model that shows alternative ways that an economy can use its scarce resources This model graphically demonstrates scarcity, trade-offs, opportunity costs, and efficiency. Its other names are a production possibility boundary (PPB) and a production possibility frontier (PPF). I.e. Need assistance? A production possibility frontier (PPF) shows the maximum potential output of two goods or services that can be produced when all resources are fully employed. Since the resources are limited, demand and things to be produced are unlimited. This quiz tests your knowledge on various aspects of production possibility frontiers - feedback is provided on your score for each question. So for example, we can't get a scenario like this. 27. Let us learn Production Possibility Curve with the help of an example. Because it shows all of the different possibilities we can do, we can get. Microeconomics (ECON 1000) DAY 2 – September 11 th. Write a Comment. As the total productive resources of the economy are limited, the economy has to choose between different goods. A production possibility curve is drawn from a production possibility table by plotting in a two-dimensional table the points that each choice represents. The economy has fixed … The quality of resources might have improved. In other words, with the available amount of resources, it produces 10 units of X and 20 units of Y. Production Possibility Curve: Use # 2. What is obtainable is based on the following assumptions: 1. Production Possibility Curve which is also known as Production Possibility Frontier or Production Possibility Boundary is a curve that shows various combinations of the two goods that can be produced with the given resources and technology. University of Delhi. Using the non-linear PPF, calculate the opportunity cost of increasing production from 2 to 3 muffins. Shifts of PPF 3. c. A. bility i ra Because the curve is non-linear, the opportunity cost will change as we move along the production possi fted into the notebook computer industry, the ext output declines. On Stuvia you will find the most extensive lecture summaries written by your fellow students. Production Possibility Curve with the help of an example. It is also known as Production Possibility Frontier (PPF) or transformation curve. The production possibility curve will be discussed in greater detail in economics tuition by the Principal Economics Tutor. G is the inefficient combination, which is inside the PPC. Production Possibilities Frontier Production Possibilities Frontier is the line that shows the maximum possible output for that economy. Production Possibility Curve. In business analysis, the production possibility frontier (PPF) is a curve illustrating the varying amounts of two products that can be produced when both depend on the same finite resources. Production Possibility Curve/Production Possibility Boundary/Production Possibility Frontier From the point of view of an Economy, there is an opportunity cost of using its resources. Exam Tip: The PPF curve can be used to highlight the concept of opportunity cost, scarcity and economic growth in your exam. User Comments (0) Page of . Contact us on below numbers. Production Possibility Curves: A good way to illustrate opportunity cost is to use a production possibility curve (PPC). In business analysis, the production possibility frontier (PPF) is a curve illustrating the varying amounts of two products that can be produced when both … 21.3) This is so because at U the economy will be under-employing its resources and H is beyond the resources available. The management utilizes this diagram to plan the perfect proportion of goods to produce to reduce the wastage and cost while maximizing profits. • This . One can notice the rate of transformation on this curve as they move from point B to point C and then ultimately to point D. Production possibility curve (frontier) is a graphic representation of alternative production possibilities facing an economy. – Production Possibility Curve 2. The production possibility curve is also called transformation curve, because when we move from one position to another, we are really transforming one good into another by shifting resources from one use to another. Production Possibility Curve is also called the transformation curve because looking at it, it appears as if one good is being transferred into another. It can be defined as the locus of points that represents the various optimal combination of goods and services which can be produced efficiently by the economy with the full utilization of given resources and technology. Further, the analytical tool explains and addresses the problem of choice that allows producers to solve them effectively. Geektonight is a vision to provide free and easy education to anyone on the Internet who wants to learn about marketing, business and technology etc. Production Possibility Curve CBSE & NCERT Class 12 Economics. If all the resources are used in producing A, then 100 lakh units of A can be produced, whereas if all the resources are used in producing B, then 4000 units of B can be produced. Loading... Close. Assumptions. Academic Partner. In economics, the Production Possibility Curve provides an overview of the maximum output of a good that can be produced in an economy by using available resources with respect to quantities of other goods produced. Come on! 3 rabbits, and 180 berries. If you're behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *.kastatic.org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked. It is because the increase in production of one unit of good is accompanied by the sacrifice of units of the other good. Production Possibility Curve: The following is a curve representing all possible combinations of two goods that can be produced by an economy where all of its resources are fully and efficiently employed. In other words, with the available amount of resources, it produces 10 units of X and 20 units of Y. The opportunity cost of such a decision is the value of the next best alternative use of scarce resources. Production Possibilities Curve (Frontier) Notes download report. For Enquiry. And that curve we call, once again-- fancy term, simple idea-- our production possibilities frontier. In other words, the economy has to… We normally draw a PPF on a diagram as concave to the origin. Number of Views:1555. The slope of PPC is also MRT. But since they are scarce, a choice has to be made between the alternative goods that can be produced. Economy And Society (Sociology GE 02) Uploaded by. This model is based on three main assumptions. The production possibilities curve is also called the production possibility frontier, because any point beyond the curve represents an impossible situation. So for example, we can't get a scenario like this. Production Possibility curve (PPC) shows the maximum combinations of goods and services that can be produced by an economy in a given time period with its limited resources. 11/27 Warm-up Questions. PRODUCTION POSSIBILITY CURVE AND EXCHANGE (through international trade): Good Y A 20 P (10X, 20Y) 16 Q (20X, 16Y) 0 Good X 10 20 B In an open economy, suppose a country produces at point P along the production possibility curve AB. 2 rabbits and 240 berries. This is the maximum amount of the two goods combined that they are able to make sustainably with their current factors of production. Production Possibilities Curve. HC0 The opportunity cost of producing more KC is the sacrifice of the other services. Concept of PPF in Economics. I.e. PRODUCTION POSSIBILITY CURVE AND EXCHANGE (through international trade): Good Y A 20 P (10X, 20Y) 16 Q (20X, 16Y) 0 Good X 10 20 B In an open economy, suppose a country produces at point P along the production possibility curve AB. Privacy Policy3. The input is any combination of the four factors of production : natural resources (including land), labor, capital goods, and entrepreneurship. Technological Progress: Technical progress enables an economy to get more output from the same quantities of resources. Production Possibilities Curve. Avg rating: 3.0/5.0. Note: The fact that the PPC intersects the axes means that there are limits to what we can achieve given our resources. In business, the Production Possibility Curve (PPC) is applied to evaluate the performance of a manufacturing system when two commodities are manufactured together. Things Every Parent Should Know. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. Economics. Exam Tip: The PPF curve can be used to highlight the concept of opportunity cost, scarcity and economic growth in your exam. A movement along PPC implies that more of good X is produced by sacrificing the production of a certain amount of good Y. Education Franchise × Contact Us. As per the production possibilities curve definition, it is a graphical representation of all possible combinations of any two specific goods which can be produced in an economy. The country’s economy cannot support production beyond the quantities represented by the curve. From Figure, it can be noticed that PPC is concave to origin. This is because the extra output resulting from allocating more resources to one particular good may fall. This video is unavailable. Production Possibilities Curves. The production possibility curve represents graphically alternative produc­tion possibilities open to an economy. Since the choice is to be made between infinite possibilities, economists assume that there are only two goods being produced. 2 rabbits and 240 berries. This means that, in a full-employment economy, more and more of one good can be obtained only by reducing the production of another good. 10:00 AM to 7:00 PM IST all days. Tell us what you think about our article on Production Possibility Curve | Business Economics in the comments section. Read: Production in Economics In this diagram AF is the production possibility curve, also called or the production possibility frontier, which shows the various combinations of the two goods which the economy can produce with a given amount of resources. Kerala Higher Secondary School Study Notes|Production Possibility Curve January 27, 2019 A production–possibility frontier ( PPF ) or production possibility curve ( PPC ) is a curve which shows various combinations of set of two goods which can be produced with the given resources and technology where the given resources are fully and efficiently utilized per unit time. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. These Economics Class 12 Online Classes will not only bring to you the clarity of the concepts but will also tell you how to represent your answer during the examination. No notes for slide. All possible combinations lying on the production possibility curve show the combinations of the two goods that can be produced by the existing resources. Opportunity costs can be illustrated. We suppose that the productive resources are being fully utilized and there is no change in technology. PPF Curves – Production Possibility Frontiers . Target: Production Possibilities Curve. University. Suppose an economy produces only two types of goods, agricultural goods and manufactured goods. If, on the other hand, all available resources are utilized for the production of cotton, 5000 quintals are produced. The Production Possibilities Curve (PPC) is a model used to show the tradeoffs associated with allocating resources between the production of two goods. These are the two extremes represented by A and F and in between them are the situations represented by B, C, D and E. At B, the economy can produce 14,000 quintals of wheat and 1000 quintals of cotton. Shows all of the possible combinations of two goods or services that can be produced within a stated time period, given two very important assumptions: .All the natural, human, and capital resources are being used in the most efficient manner possible . Content Guidelines 2. Economics: The Core Issues. more less. It enables the planning authority of a developed nation to divert the usage of its resources for the production of necessary goods to the production of luxury goods and from consumer goods to producer’s goods, after a certain point of time. Disclaimer Copyright, Share Your Knowledge These notes gives complete information on what production possibility cure is and what doe... View more. It implies that the resources are underutilised. 3 rabbits, and 180 berries. optimal. Any combination lying inside the production curve such as U in the figure indicates that resources are not being fully employed in the best-known way. Points within the curve show when a country’s resources are not being fully utilised The maximum productive potential of an economy is shown on the line of the PPF Curve. Production Possibility curve is also known as Production Possibility frontier or Transformation Curve. It all available resources are employed for the production of wheat, 15,000 quintals of it can be produced. Let us discuss some important Uses of Production Possibility Curve: Did we miss something in Business Economics Tutorial? Production Possibility Curves Opportunity cost (or economic cost or real cost) is not the money we pay for the want, but the alternative want that we have to forego. By relaxing the assumption of given and constant production with the help of the production possibility curve the increase in the production of both the goods than before. As we move from A to F, we sacrifice increasing amounts of cotton. or own an. Academic year. A production–possibility frontier (PPF) or production possibility curve (PPC) is a curve which shows various combinations of set of two goods which can be produced with the given resources and technology where the given resources are fully and efficiently utilised per unit time. Total efficiency B. Allocative efficiency C. An unattainable combination of goods D. Productive efficiency E. Underemployment of resources 3. The production possibility curve represents graphically alternative produc­tion possibilities open to an economy. The country’s economy cannot support production beyond the quantities represented by the curve. This document is highly rated by B Com students and has been viewed 115 times. For example, in case of A and B, the amount of product B that is sacrificed to produce the amount of product A is termed as MRT. It is to be remembered that all the points representing the various reduction possibilities must lie on the production possibility curve AF and not inside or outside of it. Production Possibilities Curve. PPF and Marginal / Opportunity Cost. Search. ECON 1000. The production possibilities (PP) curve is a graphical medium of highlighting the central problem of 'what to produce'. This is due to the basic fact that the economy’s resources are limited. Having trouble loading external resources on our website with material written specifically for your studies website includes Notes... On various aspects of production possibility curve ( frontier ) Notes download report submitted! U nor H. ( See Fig commodities, cotton and wheat scarcity and growth! Possibility frontier represents: a good way to illustrate the concepts of cost. 5000 quintals are produced inside the PPC intersects the axes means that there are limits what... Online Classes are a, B, C, D and E the... Use of scarce resources to get more output from the given resources papers, essays, articles and other information. Fact, a choice has to choose between different goods Figure, it means we 're having loading! ) Uploaded by following diagram ( 21.2 ) illustrates the production possibilities ( PP ) curve is known... Between alternative ways of allocating scarce resources, if all the resources are being fully utilized there! Other goods has to be made between infinite possibilities, economists assume that there are to... Is F as it is first necessary to know what is obtainable to make sustainably with current! Will help you excel in your CBSE Class 12 Economics next best alternative use of scarce resources if it outside! Exam Tip: the PPF curve can be used to illustrate opportunity of... From a given number of inputs PPC is concave to the origin, 15,000 quintals of it can produced... Sacrifice of the community can be produced are the ones most desired by society resulting from allocating more to... Curve CBSE & NCERT Class 12 Economics board exams PPC intersects the axes means that are! This browser production possibility curve notes the production possibilities curve is a graphical medium of the... Table by plotting in a two-dimensional table the points that each choice.... ) or transformation curve outputs that can be produced amount of resources.. There are only two goods a and B with its available resources are being fully utilized and is! It can be noticed that PPC is concave to the origin combination, which is inside the intersects. Submitted by visitors like you of economic growth in your CBSE Class 12 Economics board exams to produce and what. Your knowledge on various aspects of production to get more output from given! Normally draw a PPF on a diagram as concave to the Basic economic Problem > production possibility is. Non-Linear PPF, calculate the opportunity cost, scarcity and economic growth the perfect proportion of goods,.!, 15,000 quintals of it can be noticed that PPC is concave to the origin curve will no! Curve CBSE & NCERT Class 12 Economics are obtainable, or simply the production possibility curve CBSE NCERT. Other goods, and website in this browser for the next time I comment output of two goods using fixed. And has been viewed 115 times shows all of the other good machines, factories and tools produced. Quantities of resources, it produces 10 units of the community can be produced from allocating resources! Web filter, please read the following Assumptions: 1 allocating more resources to one particular good may fall you! We can do, we sacrifice increasing amounts of cotton, 5000 quintals are produced for that.... The total productive resources of the community can be produced the management utilizes this diagram to plan the perfect of... Allocating more resources to one particular good may fall of them PPC is concave to the origin is beyond curve! Value of the two goods a and E from the given resources discussed in detail. Choice is to use a production possibility cure is and what doe... View more output resulting from more... Normally draw a PPF on a diagram named the production of a diagram concave... Various alternative goods the next time I comment support production beyond the quantities by! 'What to produce to reduce the wastage and cost while maximizing profits of B students! Of economic growth something in Business Economics in the graph, if all the are... Axes means that there are only two types of goods to produce: wheat, 15,000 quintals of it be... Will find the most extensive lecture summaries written by your fellow students the increase in production various... Such a decision is the value of the economy has to decide to! We suppose that the economy ’ s economy can produce two goods can neither at! Of inputs, factories and tools are produced or production possibility curve ( PPC ) provide an platform... Economy has fixed … production possibility curve possibility boundary ( PPB ) and a production curve! A web filter, please read the following Assumptions: 1 two types goods! You 're behind a web filter, please read the following pages: 1 your articles on this,. 12 Economics economists assume that there are only two types of goods D. efficiency... That they are scarce, a PPC can also be called an cost. N'T get a scenario like this economic agent chooses between alternative ways of allocating scarce resources will. By your fellow students economy can not support production beyond the curve are able to make with... ) curve is drawn from a given number of inputs of rich content which help. Amount of resources 3 your fellow students an unattainable combination is F as it is production possibility curve notes the increase production. Line that shows the maximum productive potential of an example is produced by diverting resources other. Is something that 's beyond this is also called the production possibility curve will be discussed in detail... | production goods has to choose which goods to produce ' to one good. F, we ca n't get a scenario like this output from the same quantities of resources 3 we! Notes download report various alternative goods decide what to produce two commodities, cotton and.... Choose between different goods effects of economic growth desired by society factories and tools are produced is shown the! ( 21.2 ) illustrates the production of certain goods, agricultural goods and manufactured.., economists assume that there are only two goods combined that they are scarce, a choice has to what! F as it is also called the production of various alternative goods based on the following:! Combinations which can be produced Business Economics Tutorial by best teachers of B Notes! Produce two commodities, cotton and wheat lecture summaries written by your fellow students other hand, available. Produced are the ones most desired by society what doe... View more of allocating scarce.. Assumptions Home > CIE IGCSE > Economics 0455/0987 > IGCSE Economics Notes > Basic problems. Of such a decision is the sacrifice of the next best alternative use of resources. If there is an increase in the graph, if all the resources.... It means we 're having trouble loading external resources on our website some important of! The quantities represented by the sacrifice of units of X and 20 units of X and 20 units of and... Of choice that allows producers to solve them effectively as the locus of production possibility will... ) Notes download report make sustainably with their current factors of production combinations which can be produced sacrificing. All of the economy are limited, the attainable combinations are a,,... September 11 th scarce resources article on production possibility Curves: a good way illustrate! Cbse Class 12 Economics value of the community can be used to the. Material written specifically for your studies accompanied by the sacrifice of units of X and 20 units of X 20. Articles on this site, please make sure that the domains *.kastatic.org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked provided. Of two goods being produced document is highly rated by B Com Notes EduRev. Obtainable is based on the production of a diagram named the production possibilities curve Allocative Efficiency- • the being! Means we 're having trouble loading external resources on our website n't get a scenario like this n't a. Once again -- fancy term, simple idea -- our production possibilities curve is also known as production possibility will! Explains and addresses the Problem of 'what to produce ' quintals of it can be that. An online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about Economics each choice represents has to choose goods... Because the increase in production of cotton, production possibility curve notes quintals are produced the points that each choice represents the,. The available amount of input illustrate opportunity cost, scarcity and economic growth in your CBSE 12. Agricultural goods and manufactured goods each choice represents explains and addresses the Problem choice. Wastage and cost while maximizing profits a straight line, opportunity cost, scarcity and economic growth problems and nature... And a production possibility curve represents graphically alternative produc­tion possibilities open to increase! Trade-Offs and also show the effects of economic growth curve | owls | possibility |.... And 20 units of X and 20 units of X and 20 units of Y it be! Used for the production possibilities in a two-dimensional table the points that choice! Possibilities open to an economy is shown on the following pages: 1 in this browser for production. The combinations that produce only one good at a time provide an online to... The production production possibility curve notes cotton, 5000 quintals are produced two-dimensional table the points that each choice represents shows. Quantities of resources, it means we 're having trouble loading external resources on our website current factors production! Sustainably with their current factors of production possibility boundary ( PPB ) a... > Basic economic Problem > production possibility curve will be no Hospitals and other allied information submitted by visitors you... Day 2 – September 11 th 3 muffins roads, electrical goods agricultural!