40 years is how long it took for scientists to figure out exactly why this territory has less gravity. Shop Hudson's Bay for handbags, women's and men's clothing and shoes, and housewares. These strata unconformably overlie Archean strata of the Superior craton and Proterozoic Richmond Group. The reasons for the shortage have puzzled scientists for decades. With the closure of the HBC posts and stores, although many are now run by The North West Company,[57] in the second half of the 20th century, many coastal villages are now almost exclusively populated by Cree and Inuit people. Because the Hudson Bay is missing gravity, if you weigh 200 kilo-pounds normally, by moving to Hudson Bay, you will, in an instant, automatically weigh 0.01 pounds or kilograms less—and you don’t even have to stop eating pasta. In the same volume, Wilson[6] evaluates Beals' interpretation and proposes an alternative hypothesis that the Nastapoka arc formed as the result of a continental-scale collision of pre-existing Archean continents and closure of an ancient ocean basin. the Hudson Bay gravitational anomaly is about -0.005%. Measured by shoreline, Hudson Bay is the largest bay in the world (the largest in area being the Bay of Bengal). When the ice cleared in the spring, Hudson wanted to explore the rest of the area, but the crew mutinied on June 22, 1611. Further west, exposed in the Ottawa and Belcher Islands, the strata of the Nastapoka Group become highly faulted and tightly, often isoclinally, folded. Hudson Bay encompasses 1,230,000 km2 (470,000 sq mi), making it the second-largest water body using the term "bay" in the world (after the Bay of Bengal). In areal distribution, these rocks consist of about 60% Archean granitic plutons and granitic gneiss. [13], The search for a western route to Cathay and the Indies, which had been actively pursued since the days of Columbus and the Cabots, in the latter part of the fifteenth century, directly resulted in the discovery of Hudson Bay. The Western Churchill and Superior cratons collided at about 1.9–1.8 Ga in the Trans-Hudson orogeny. According to Robert Frost's answer to Why is that Hudson Bay area of Canada has 4% less gravity than the rest of the world? [2] About 20% of the Superior craton consists of metamorphosed Archean volcanic and sedimentary rocks. They left Hudson and others adrift in a small boat. The so-called Arctic Bridge would link Churchill, Manitoba, and the Russian port of Murmansk.[50]. That means, if you weigh 150 pounds in a location with “average” gravity, you would weigh 149.9925 pounds in Hudson Bay. The formation of this basin resulted in the accumulation of black bituminous oil shale and evaporite deposits within its centre, thick basin-margin limestone and dolomite, and the development of extensive reefs that ringed the basin margins that were tectonically uplifted as the basin subsided. The main group of islands is known as the Belcher Islands. The metamorphosed sedimentary strata consist largely of interbedded mudstones and sandstones exhibiting sedimentary structures indicative of turbidites. A large body of saltwater in northeastern Canada, GHCN climatic monthly data, GISS, using 1995–2007 annual averages. [14] English explorers and colonists named Hudson Bay after Sir Henry Hudson who explored the bay beginning August 2, 1610 on his ship Discovery. Northern Hudson Bay has a polar climate (Köppen: ET) being one of the few places in the world where this type of climate is found south of 60 °N, going further south towards Quebec, where Inukjuak is still dominated by the tundra. In: Science, History and Hudson Bay, v. 2. Hudson Bay is often considered part of the Arctic Ocean; the International Hydrographic Organization, in its 2002 working draft[5] of Limits of Oceans and Seas defined the Hudson Bay, with its outlet extending from 62.5 to 66.5 degrees north (just a few miles south of the Arctic Circle) as being part of the Arctic Ocean, specifically "Arctic Ocean Subdivision 9.11". [43][44], Hudson Bay and the associated structural basin lies within the centre of a large free-air gravity anomaly that lies within the Canadian Shield. In other words, gravity in the Hudson Bay area and surrounding regions is lower than it is in other parts of the world, a phenomenon first identified in the 1960s when the Earth's global gravity … [40] During the majority of the Cambrian Period, this basin did not exist. All, as are the islands in James Bay, are part of Nunavut and lie in the Arctic Archipelago. At the extreme southern tip of the extension known as James Bay arises a humid continental climate with a longer and generally hotter summer. The average annual temperature for Churchill at 59°N is −6 °C or 21.2 °F and Inukjuak facing cool westerlies in summer at 58°N an even colder −7 °C or 19.4 °F. Hudson Bay occupies a large structural basin, known as the Hudson Bay basin, that lies within the Canadian Shield. The Belcher Islands are the eroded surface of the Belcher Fold Belt, which formed as a result of the tectonic compression and folding of sediments that accumulated along the margin of the Superior Craton before its collision with the Western Churchill Craton. It is connected with the Atlantic Ocean via the Hudson Strait (northeast) and with Apparent gravity is lower at the equator due to circular forces and actual gravity is lower as the Earth has a larger radius at the equator than at the poles. As of 2008, the port had four deep-sea berths capable of handling Panamax-size vessels for the loading and unloading of grain, bulk commodities, general cargo, and tanker vessels. There are many islands in Hudson Bay, mostly near the eastern coast. Several are disputed by the Cree. pillow lavas, indicative of underwater volcanic eruptions. Hudson Bay (Inuktitut: Kangiqsualuk ilua, French: baie d'Hudson), whiles (uisually heestorically) cried Hudson's Bay, is a muckle body o sautwatter in northeastren Canadae, wi a surface aurie o 1,230,000 square kilometre (470,000 sq mi). «Discovery» vart fanga i isen over vinteren og mannskapet overlevde på land heilt sør i James Bay. The unconformity consists of undeformed stromatolite-bearing dolomites overlying either foliated Archean granodiorite or the tilted and eroded strata of the Richmond Gulf Group. Earth-Science Reviews 35, 4, p. 331–365. A steady increase in regional temperatures over the last 100 years has been reflected in a lengthening of the ice-free period which was as short as four months in the late 17th century.[27]. The Port of Churchill was an important shipping link for trade with Europe and Russia until its closure in 2016 by owner OmniTRAX. It was only during the later part of the Cambrian that the rising sea level of the Sauk marine transgression slowly submerged it. [6][7][8][9][10], Some sources describe Hudson Bay as a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean,[11] or the Arctic Ocean. Noting the paucity of impact structures on Earth in relation to the Moon and Mars, Carlyle Smith Beals[46] proposed that it is possibly part of a Precambrian extraterrestrial impact structure that is comparable in size to the Mare Crisium on the Moon. Some of these were founded as trading posts in the 17th and 18th centuries by the Hudson's Bay Company, making them some of the oldest settlements in Western Canada. Before deposition was terminated by marine regression, Upper Devonian black bituminous shale accumulated in the south-east of the basin. [24] Vis-à-vis geographically closer Europe, contrasts stand much more extreme. hudson bay's liability with respect to the site is limited to the maximum extent permitted by law. The current general consensus is that it is an arcuate boundary of tectonic origin between the Belcher Fold Belt and undeformed basement of the Superior Craton created during the Trans-Hudson orogeny. 23, Census division [Census division], Manitoba", "Census Profile, 2016 Census Fort Severn 89, Indian reserve [Census subdivision], Ontario and Kenora, District [Census division], Ontario", "Census Profile, 2016 Census Kuujjuarapik, Village nordique [Census subdivision], Quebec and Nord-du-Québec, Census division [Census division], Quebec", "Census Profile, 2016 Census Puvirnituq, Village nordique [Census subdivision], Quebec and Quebec [Province]", "Census Profile, 2016 Census Umiujaq, Village nordique [Census subdivision], Quebec and Nord-du-Québec, Census division [Census division], Quebec", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hudson_Bay&oldid=992615521, Short description is different from Wikidata, All Wikipedia articles written in Canadian English, Articles using infobox body of water without alt, Articles using infobox body of water without pushpin map, Articles using infobox body of water without alt bathymetry, Articles needing additional references from July 2017, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. In contrast, most of the eastern shores (the Quebec portion) form the western edge of the Canadian Shield in Quebec. In the 1950s, during the Cold War, a few sites along the coast became part of the Mid-Canada Line, watching for a potential Soviet bomber attack over the North Pole. The area is rocky and hilly. It is the main brand of the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC), the oldest and longest-surviving company in North America.. [38] One group of islands is the Belcher Islands. Since then, scientists have been trying to figure out what is causing this anomaly but, up until today, they don’t know the exact answer. [39][40][41][42], The remaining history of the Hudson Bay basin is largely unknown as a major unconformity separates Upper Devonian strata from glacial deposits of the Pleistocene. Engelske oppdagarar og kolonistar kalla Hudsonbukta opp etter Henry Hudson, som utforska bukta frå 2. august 1610, med skipet hans «Discovery». Gravity is now lower there than in other parts of the gravity-depleted bay. The strategic locations were bases for inland exploration. The only Arctic deep-water port in Canada is the Port of Churchill, located at Churchill, Manitoba. Hudson Bay occupies a large structural basin, known as the Hudson Bay basin, that lies within the Canadian Shield. The collection and interpretation of outcrop, seismic and drillhole data for exploration for oil and gas reservoirs within the Hudson Bay basin found that it is filled by, at most, 2,500 m (8,200 ft) of Ordovician to Devonian limestone, dolomites, evaporites, black shales, and various clastic sedimentary rocks that overlie less than 60 m (200 ft) of Cambrian strata that consist of unfossiliferous quartz sandsto… All are part of the territory Nunavut. Only starting in the Late Ordovician and continuing into the Silurian did the gradual regional subsidence of this part of the Canadian Shield form the Hudson Bay basin. Tamisiea, M.E., Mitrovica, J.X. During Middle Silurian times, subsidence ceased and this basin was uplifted. Gravity isn’t uniform all over the Earth’s surface. The Nastapoka arc is a distinctively arcuate segment of the coastline of the southeastern shore of Hudson Bay, Canada, that extends from the most northerly of the Hopewell Islands to Long Island near the junction with James Bay.It is a prominent, near-perfect circular arc, covering more than 160° of a 450-km-diameter circle. The deformation accompanying the Trans-Hudson orogeny could have masked evidence of such an Archean impact. Hudson Bay has a lower average salinity level than that of ocean water. One consequence of the lower salinity of the bay is that the freezing point of the water is higher than in the rest of the world's oceans, thus decreasing the time that the bay remains ice-free. The Port and the Hudson Bay Railway were sold to Arctic Gateway Group — a consortium of First Nations, local governments, and corporate investors — in 2018. Lake Winnipeg is similarly named by the local Cree, as is the location for the city of Winnipeg. Some references of geological/impact structure interest include: Rondot, Jehan (1994). Although not geographically apparent, it is for climatic reasons considered to be a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean. [51][52] With no sale finalized by July 2016, OmniTRAX shut down the port and the major railroad freight operations in August 2016. Routes from the port connect to the North Atlantic through the Hudson Strait. It drains a very large area, about 3,861,400 km2 (1,490,900 sq mi),[3] that includes parts of southeastern Nunavut, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Ontario, Quebec, all of Manitoba and indirectly through smaller passages of water parts of the U.S. states of North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, and Montana. (Köppen: Dfb)[22] The average annual temperature in almost the entire bay is around 0 °C (32 °F) or below. This is because no credible evidence for such an impact structure has been found by regional magnetic, Bouguer gravity, or other geologic studies. The Nastapoka arc is a distinctively arcuate segment of the coastline of the southeastern shore of Hudson Bay, Canada, that extends from the most northerly of the Hopewell Islands to Long Island near the junction with James Bay. They examined the abundant and extensive rock exposures that occur within the region of the Nastapoka arc and found a complete lack of shatter cones, suevite-type or other unusual melt rocks, pseudotachylite or mylonite, radial faults or fractures, unusual injection breccias, or any other evidence of shock metamorphism. This ice sheet was almost 2 miles (3.2 km) thick in most sections, and in two areas of Hudson Bay, it was 2.3 miles (3.7 km) thick. The Hudson's Bay Company (HBC; French: Compagnie de la Baie d'Hudson CBH) is a Canadian retail business group. It is well away from the poles and it is at Sea Level. In the same volume, John Tuzo Wilson[47] commented on Beals' interpretation and alternately proposed that the Nastapoka arc may have formed as part of an extensive Precambrian continental collisional orogen, linked to the closure of an ancient ocean basin. Some parts of Canada and especially The Hudson Bay, have less gravity than the rest of the earth. In addition, total-field magnetic anomaly and Bouguer gravity maps of the Hudson Bay region in Eaton and Darbyshire (2010) clearly define the structural elements underlying Hudson Bay. Adjacent to the Nastapoka arc, these strata form a homocline that dips gently westward and consist of unmetamorphosed to slightly metamorphosed sandstone, stromatolite-bearing dolomite, banded iron formation, and basalt. [45], Earth scientists have disagreed about what created the semicircular feature known as the Nastapoka arc that forms a section of the shoreline of southeastern Hudson Bay. in no event will we or any of our affiliates, agents, or employees be liable for any indirect, incidental, special, punitive, or consequential damages however caused arising out of this user agreement, the site, or the inability to use the site. Recognition of eroded astroblemes. This page was last edited on 6 December 2020, at 06:07. [15]:185 In May 1612, Sir Thomas Button sailed from England with two ships to look for Henry Hudson, and to continue the search for the north-west passage to India. Lavoie, D., Pinet, N., Dietrich, J. and Chen, Z., 2015. In August 1972, Robert S. Dietz and J. Paul Barringer[7] conducted an extensive search of much of the Nastapoka arc with First Nations and Inuit canoes and fishing boats in an investigation of its impact origin. :170 På den fjerde reisa si til Nord-Amerika, segla Hudson rundt vestkysten av Grønland og inn i bukta, og kartla mykje av austkysten. These cratons are separated by a tectonic collage that forms a suture zone between these cratons and the Trans-Hudson Orogen. General Survey of World Climatology, Landsberg ed., (1984), Elsevier. The main causes are the low rate of evaporation (the bay is ice-covered for much of the year), the large volume of terrestrial runoff entering the bay (about 700 km3 (170 cu mi) annually, the Hudson Bay watershed covering much of Canada, many rivers and streams discharging into the bay), and the limited connection with the Atlantic Ocean and its higher salinity. Gravity in the Hudson Bay area and surrounding regions, including Quebec, is lower than it is in other parts of the world. A large portion of the lowlands in the province of Ontario is part of the Polar Bear Provincial Park, and a similar portion of the lowlands in Manitoba is contained in Wapusk National Park, the latter location being a significant polar bear maternity denning area.[37]. In addition, a minor amount of terrestrial Cretaceous fluvial sands and gravels are preserved in the fills of a ring of sinkholes created by the dissolution of Silurian evaporites during the Cretaceous Period. [16] The HBC negotiated a trading monopoly from the English crown for the Hudson Bay watershed, called Rupert's Land. It’s a result of mass, which means the varying density of the … Because of the irregular shapes of the colliding cratons, this collision trapped between them large fragments of juvenile crust, a sizable microcontinent, and island arc terranes, beneath what is now the centre of modern Hudson Bay as part of the Trans-Hudson Orogen. [39][42], The Precambrian Shield underlying Hudson Bay and in which Hudson Bay basin formed is composed of two Archean proto-continents, the Western Churchill and Superior cratons. [15]:170 On his fourth voyage to North America, Hudson worked his way around Greenland's west coast and into the bay, mapping much of its eastern coast. [48][49], The longer periods of ice-free navigation and the reduction of Arctic Ocean ice coverage have led to Russian and Canadian interest in the potential for commercial trade routes across the Arctic and into Hudson Bay. The graben, its faults, and the Richmond Gulf Group are unconformably overlain by the strata of the Nastapoka Group. Wilson, J. Tuzo (1968) Comparison of the Hudson Bay arc with some other features. These strata, which are known as the Richmond Gulf Group, rest unconformably on Archean crystalline rocks of the Superior craton and are now preserved by downfaulting only within the Richmond Gulf Graben. It is the only port of its size and scope in Canada that does not connect directly to the country's road system; all goods shipped overland to and from the port must travel by rail. The Eastern Cree name for Hudson and James Bay is Wînipekw (Southern dialect) or Wînipâkw (Northern dialect), meaning muddy or brackish water. [20], The International Hydrographic Organization defines the northern limit of Hudson Bay as follows:[21]. This paradox was first identified in the 1960s when the Earth’s gravity fields were being mapped. Noting the paucity of impact structures on Earth in relation to the Moon and Mars and remarkable curvature of the shoreline of this part of Hudson Bay, Beals[1] proposes that the Nastapoka arc is possibly part of a Precambrian extraterrestrial meteor impact structure that is comparable in size to the Mare Crisium on the Moon. Other authorities include it in the Atlantic, in part because of its greater water budget connection with that ocean. In the extreme northeast, winter temperatures average as low as −29 °C or −20.2 °F. Hudson Bay and the associated structural basin lies within the centre of a large free-air gravity anomaly that lies within the Canadian Shield. During the Devonian Period, this basin filled with terrestrial red beds that interfinger with marine limestone and dolomites. The granitic rocks include typically foliated granodiorites, quartz diorites, quartz monzonites, granites; related intrusive rocks; and their metamorphosed equivalents. [26], Water temperature peaks at 8–9 °C (46.4–48.2 °F) on the western side of the bay in late summer. Free-air gravity anomaly map, showing the low-gravity anomaly in Hudson Bay, Canada, which is partly due to the last ice age. [2], A large triangular area surrounding Richmond Gulf, which includes a short segment of the Nastapoka arc, is underlain by about 1 kilometer (0.62 mi) of undeformed, pink and red, mainly fluvial, feldspar-rich sandstone that is interbedded with minor beds of conglomerate and basaltic, subaerial, lava flows. Based on numerical modelling, regional geology, and lack of evidence for a hypervelocity impact, the current, general consensus is that it is an arcuate boundary of tectonic origin between the Belcher Fold Belt and crystalline rocks of the Superior craton created during the Trans-Hudson orogeny about 2.0–1.8 billion years ago.[8][9][10]. With an area of 316,000 square miles (819,000 square km), it is bounded by Nunavut territory (north and west), Manitoba and Ontario (south), and Quebec (east). The bay is named after Henry Hudson, an Englishman sailing for the Dutch East India Company, and after whom the river that he explored in 1609 is also named. There are many islands in Hudson Bay, mostly near the eastern coast. Two main historic sites along the coast were York Factory and Prince of Wales Fort. In December 2015, OmniTRAX announced it was negotiating a sale of the port, and the associated Hudson Bay Railway, to a group of First Nations based in northern Manitoba. It is a prominent, near-perfect circular arc, covering more than 160° of a 450-km-diameter circle. Hudson Bay (Inuktitut: Kangiqsualuk ilua,[2] French: baie d'Hudson) (sometimes called Hudson's Bay, usually historically) is a large body of saltwater in northeastern Canada with a surface area of 1,230,000 km2 (470,000 sq mi). HBC's trade monopoly was abolished in 1870, and it ceded Rupert's Land to Canada, an area of approximately 3,900,000 km2 (1,500,000 sq mi), as part of the Northwest Territories. A fur trading business for much of its existence, HBC now owns and operates retail stores in Canada and the United States. There is clear evidence that it is the arcuate edge of the Belcher fold-thrust belt, which was created 1.85-1.80 Ga ago. During the Ordovician, this part of the Canadian Shield continued to be submerged by rising sea levels except for a brief middle Ordovician marine regression. A new theory to account for the Hudson Bay area’s missing gravity concerns the Laurentide Ice Sheet, which covered much of present-day Canada and the northern United States. [3][4], The portion of Hudson Bay immediately offshore of and partially encircled by the Nastapoka arc is underlain by Early Proterozoic strata of the Nastapoka Group. Hudson Bay (French: "baie d'Hudson") is a large (1.23 million km²), relatively shallow body of water in northeastern Canada.It drains a very large area that includes parts of Ontario, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Alberta, most of Manitoba, parts of North Dakota, South Dakota and Minnesota, and the southeastern area of Nunavut.A smaller offshoot of the bay, James Bay, lies to the south. However, other Earth scientists[11][12] have proposed that the preexisting structure of an older Archean impact structure might have been reactivated during and modified by the Trans-Hudson orogeny to form the Nastapoka arc. Based upon this data, geophysicists and other Earth scientists concluded that the Laurentide Ice Sheet was composed of two large domes to the west and east of Hudson Bay. The western shores of the bay are a lowland known as the Hudson Bay Lowlands which covers 324,000 km2 (125,000 sq mi). One example is York Factory with angled walls to help defend the fort. Less common in occurrence are layered gneisses, migmatites and hybrid rocks that often form easterly trending linear belts. This is because in the central summer months, heat waves can advance from the hot land and make the weather milder, with the result that the average temperature surpasses 10 °C or 50 °F. The most abundant volcanic rock is metamorphosed basalts that exhibit primary structures, e.g. Signs of numerous former beachfronts can be seen far inland from the current shore. It is largely frozen over from mid-December to mid-June when it usually clears from its eastern end westwards and southwards. These anomalies are the differences between the theoretical value of gravity at the surface and the measured value. [2][4] The unconformity between the Early Proterozoic Nastapoka Group and the underlying Archean Superior craton lies just inland of Nastapoka arc as defined by the edge of arcuate eastern coastline of Hudson Bay. [17]:427 Starting in 1913, the Bay was extensively charted by the Canadian Government's CSS Acadia to develop it for navigation. [19] This mapping progress led to the establishment of Churchill, Manitoba as a deep-sea port for wheat exports in 1929, after unsuccessful attempts at Port Nelson. Hudson's Bay (French: la Baie d'Hudson), formerly and still colloquially The Bay (French: la Baie), is a Canadian department store chain. It is about 1,370 km (850 mi) long and 1,050 km (650 mi) wide. The collection and interpretation of outcrop, seismic and drillhole data for exploration for oil and gas reservoirs within the Hudson Bay basin found that it is filled by, at most, 2,500 m (8,200 ft) of Ordovician to Devonian limestone, dolomites, evaporites, black shales, and various clastic sedimentary rocks that overlie less than 60 m (200 ft) of Cambrian strata that consist of unfossiliferous quartz sandstones and conglomerates, overlain by sandy and stromatolitic dolomites. [54] On July 9, 2019, ships on missions to resupply arctic communities began stopping at the port for additional cargo,[55] and the port began shipping grain again on September 7, 2019.[56]. The Hudson Bay region of Canada has less gravity than it’s supposed to. A thin, conglomeratic quartz sandstone separates the dolomites from the underlying strata and forms the base of the Nastapoka Group. Modeling glacial isostatic adjustment using the GRACE data, they concluded that ~25 to ~45% of the observed free-air gravity anomaly was due to ongoing glacial isostatic adjustment, and the remainder likely represents longer time-scale effects of mantle convection. Communities along the Hudson Bay coast or on islands in the bay are (all populations are as of 2016): The Hudson's Bay Company built forts as fur trade strongholds against the French or other possible invaders. This claim is disputed by the United States but no action to resolve it has been taken. [17]:4 France contested this grant by sending several military expeditions to the region, but abandoned its claim in the Treaty of Utrecht (April 1713).[18]. Hudson Bay (Inuktitut: Kangiqsualuk ilua, French: baie d'Hudson) (sometimes called Hudson's Bay, usually historically) is a large body of saltwater in northeastern Canada with a surface area of 1,230,000 km 2 (470,000 sq mi). [1], The bedrock that comprises the shoreline and landscape that lies inland of the Nastapoka arc largely consists of Archean age rocks of the Superior craton. [53] The railway continued to carry cargo to supply the town of Churchill itself until the line was damaged by flooding on May 23, 2017. Geology. Much of the landform has been shaped by the actions of glaciers and the shrinkage of the bay over long periods of time. The similarity in areal extent of the free-air gravity anomaly with the perimeter of the former Laurentide Ice Sheet that covered this part of Laurentia led to a long-held conclusion that this perturbation in the Earth’s gravity reflected still ongoing glacial isostatic adjustment to the melting and disappearance of this ice sheet. Beals, C. S. (editor), p. 1015–1033. The HBC shipped the furs to Europe and continued to use some of these posts well into the 20th century. In 2006 HBC was sold for $1.1 billion to an American businessman, Jerry Zucker, and as such is no longer a Canadian-owned company. [4] On the east it is connected with the Atlantic Ocean by Hudson Strait; on the north, with the Arctic Ocean by Foxe Basin (which is not considered part of the bay), and Fury and Hecla Strait. The Port of Churchill is a privately-owned port on Hudson Bay in Churchill, Manitoba, Canada. The biggest port in the Hudson bay is the city of Churchill, which lays on the river with the same name, Churchill River. The port is connected to the Hudson Bay Railway, which shares the same parent company, and cargo connections are made with the Canadian National Railway system at HBR's southern terminus in The Pas. Hudson Bay's southern arm is called James Bay. Free shipping on orders over $99. During this period, the Hudson's Bay Company built several factories (forts and trading posts) along the coast at the mouth of the major rivers (such as Fort Severn, Ontario; York Factory, Churchill, Manitoba and the Prince of Wales Fort). The colours range from purple (low gravity), through blue, green (normal) and yellow to red (high). A new theory to account for the Hudson Bay area’s missing gravity concerns the Laurentide Ice Sheet, which covered much of present-day Canada and the northern United States. Hudson’s Bay Company, corporation that occupies a prominent place in both the economic and the political history of Canada. The area is drained by a large number of rivers and has formed a characteristic vegetation known as muskeg. [4][5], The origin of the Nastapoka arc has been a source of disagreement and discussion among geologists, other Earth scientists, and planetary geologists. There is clear evidence that it is quite interesting too it has been shaped the! Is similarly named by the local Cree, as are the islands in Bay. Silurian times, subsidence ceased and this basin filled with terrestrial red beds that interfinger with limestone., GISS, using 1995–2007 annual averages of hudson bay gravity wikipedia tectonic collage that a! And hybrid rocks that often form easterly trending linear belts Bay basin, that within... The tilted and eroded strata of the eastern shores ( the Quebec portion ) form the shores... 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