Norway • In some roosters, the tail can extend more than 30 cm (12 inches) in length. [2][3] Other standards include the Standard of Perfection, the Australian Poultry Standard, and the standard of the American Bantam Association, which deals exclusively with bantam fowl. In groups of male chicks, however, fights for dominance may continue into adulthood. Social hierarchies in chickens are segregated by sex and manifest as a pecking order, in which individuals of higher social rank may strike out at individuals of lower rank with their beaks (pecking) to ensure access to food and other resources. Romania • Before 2011 it was a rarely kept breed but as people got interested in the long-crower and contest started to develop across Europe, people became interested in them to see who could develop the rooster with the longest crow. The first of such standards was the British Poultry Standard, which is still in publication today. Philippines • The Chicken Encyclopedia An Illustrated Reference by Gail Damerow The Chicken Encyclopedia | READ MORE Format: paperback, 320 pages ISBN: 9781603425612 (1603425616) Author: Gail Damerow Genres: gardening, animals Release date: January 31, 2012 Publisher: Storey Publishing, LLC Language: english About The Book From addled to wind egg and crossed beak to zygote, the […] U denotes a breed primarily used for exhibition, but which is still used for utility purposes. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/animal/chicken, chicken - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), chicken - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Galo Índio Gigante, also known as Giant Indian, is a breed of domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus) developed in Brazil. The market for chicken meat has grown dramatically since then, with worldwide exports reaching nearly 12.5 million metric tons (about 13.8 million tons) by the early 21st century. The comprehensive information in The Complete Encyclopedia of Chickens is organized into chapters on the history of keeping chickens, choosing chicks, breeds of chickens, housing, care, and feeding. Afghanistan • Chicken Breeds Chart - Vintage Chicken Art Print - Kitchen Wall Art - Chicken Breed Poster - Kitchen Art - Farmhouse art - Vintage Chicken ... Chicken breeds, 1890 Original coloured lithography Encyclopedia prints, antique, nature, art, decor, very rare, collectable RareAndCurio. The Jersey Giant is the largest breed of chicken, though because of their huge size it takes them too long to mature to be commercially viable. Some sleep in trees if there are trees around. The Nankin Bantam or Nankin is a British bantam breed of chicken. See also poultry Each flock of chickens develops a social hierarchy that determines access to food, nesting sites, mates, and other resources. Belgium • Korea • Vietnam, By primary use: Despite the chicken’s close relationship with the red jungle fowl, there is evidence that the gray jungle fowl (G. sonneratii) of southern India and other jungle fowl species, also members of Gallus, may have contributed to the bird’s ancestry. The Sussex breed of chicken has exactly the same history and temperament as the Speckled Sussex (above), but as one would expect, come in other colors aside from speckled. Dual-purpose • A young chicken is called a chick. The chicken whisperer's guide to keeping chickens : everything you need to know-- and didn't know you needed to know about backyard and urban chickens Only in the early 20th century, however, did chicken meat and eggs become mass-production commodities. They are a utility bird, raised for meat and eggs, and also as show birds. European Union Council Directive 1999/74/EC, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_chicken_breeds&oldid=993280071, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Noord Hollands Hoen or Noord-Hollandse Blauwe, see, This page was last edited on 9 December 2020, at 19:52. Complete with breed descriptions, common medical concerns, and plenty of chicken trivia, this illustrated A-to-Z reference guide is both informative and entertaining. Austria • The true bantams include: Many common strains of crossbred chickens exist, but none breed true or are recognized by poultry breed standards; thus, though they are extremely common in flocks focusing on high productivity, crossbreeds do not technically meet the definition of a breed. United States • Though some may be slightly better for one of these purposes, they are usually called dual-purpose breeds. Ayam Cemani rooster Ayam Cemani is a breed of chicken, originating in Indonesia. There are additionally a few hybrid strains which are common in the poultry world, especially in large poultry farms. Japan • Originally, meat production was a by-product of egg production. Over the 7,400-year history of chicken (. The Jersey Giant weigh up to 13 pounds, but they are slow growers who need a lot of food. A broiler is any chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) that is bred and raised specifically for meat production. Thailand • By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Meat • The commercial white egg layer is white feathered and weighs about 1.8 kg. Mass production of chicken meat and eggs began in the early 20th century, but by the middle of that century meat production had outstripped egg production as a specialized industry. Omissions? Germany • The Cornish Cross is the preferred when picking a chicken for meat. Males (called cocks or roosters) and females (hens) are known for their fleshy combs, lobed wattles hanging below the bill, and high-arched tails. It is a cross of 19th century Dutch landrace chickens with Asian breeds imported to Europe in the mid-late 19th century such as the Brahma, Cochin, Croad Langshan and Malay. The name Australorp is a portmanteau, a combination of two separate words into one (think: Brangelina). Other articles where Plymouth Rock is discussed: poultry farming: Chickens: Common American breeds include the Plymouth Rock, the Wyandotte, the Rhode Island Red, and the New Hampshire, all of which are dual-purpose breeds that are good for both eggs and meat. Origin of Australorp chickens. Within the genus Gallus, this chick is amongst the largest breeds in the world. Exhibition, See also   •    Footnotes   •    References. Fertilized embryos develop quickly, and chicks hatch approximately 21 days later. Greece • List of North American chicken breeds From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This is a list of chicken breeds usually considered to originate in Canada and the United States. Know Your Hobby Animals: A Breed Encyclopedia: 172 Breed Profiles of Chickens, Cows By fox-chapel-publishing 8.2 View Product 8.2 8: Mini Encyclopedia of Chicken Breeds and Care. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. It is a true bantam, a naturally small breed with no large counterpart from which it was miniaturised. Other articles where Cornish is discussed: poultry farming: Chickens: …Cornish Cross, a hybrid of Cornish and White Rock, is one of the most-common breeds for industrial meat production and is esteemed for its compact size and rapid, efficient growth. From the large fowl like Australorps or Orpingtons to the smaller bantams like the Dutch, Belgian or Japanese, there’s usually a breed of chicken that will tickle your fancy! Malaysia • These types are first generation crosses of true breeds. Egypt • They are expected to produce one dozen eggs for every 1.55 kg of feed. In situations where one adult bird challenges another—which happens most often when a new bird is introduced into the flock—fights involving males risk injury and death more often than fights involving females. Most large chicken breeds have a bantam counterpart, sometimes referred to as a miniature. Russia • Czech Republic • Navigate parenthood with the help of the Raising Curious Learners podcast. Italy • Any breed may tech­ni­cally be used for gen­eral agri­cul­turalpur­poses, and all breeds are shown to some de­gree. [1] Domesticated for thousands of years, distinguishable breeds of chicken have been present since the combined factors of geographical isolation and selection for desired characteristics created regional types with distinct physical and behavioral traits passed on to their offspring. Any breed may be used for general agricultural purposes, and all breeds are shown to some degree. Descendants of those domestications have spread throughout the world in several waves for at least the last 2,000 years. Many immature males (cockerels) are castrated (usually chemically, with hormones that cause atrophying of the testicles) to become meat birds (capons). Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The name comes from the ability of the rooster to prolong a crow for an exceptionally long time which distinguishes them from all other domestic and wild chicken breeds. How­ever, dis­tinct breeds are the re­sult of se­lec­tive breed­ing to em­pha­size cer­tain traits. 4. Since the 19th century, poultry fancy, the breeding and competitive exhibition of poultry as a hobby, has grown to be a huge influence on chicken breeds. There are hundreds of chicken breeds in existence. More information The Sebright /ˈsiːbraɪt/ is a breed of chicken named after its developer, Sir John Saunders Sebright. The physical traits used to distinguish chicken breeds are size, plumage color, comb type, skin color, number of toes, amount of feathering, egg color, and place of origin. Broiler birds (for … However, distinct breeds are the result of selective breeding to emphasize certain traits. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? They are a popular choice for backyard flocks because of their egg laying abilities and hardiness. The basic white egg producing breed is the White Leghorn, while brown eggs are produced by hybrids based on several breeds, most notably the Rhode Island Red, Barred Plymouth Rock and New Hampshire. Myanmar • Albania • Chickens are omnivores. The eggs hatch into … The only chicken to lay colored (shades of blue, green, or red) eggs. Many breeds were selected and are used primarily for producing eggs, these are mostly light-weight birds whose hens do not go broody often. Netherlands • The time between ovulation and egg-laying is approximately 23–26 hours. But each chicken breed is known for a primary use. Australia • Pakistan • Mature males have long been used for sport (i.e., cockfighting, now outlawed in many jurisdictions) as well as for breeding. Females (mature hens and younger chickens, called pullets) are raised for meat and for their edible eggs. Some Araucanas have tufts, others sport bearas or crests, or lack a tail. The chicken is perhaps the most widely domesticated fowl, raised worldwide for its meat and eggs.… Poland • Only hens that could no longer produce enough eggs were killed and sold for meat. Chicken feet for sale at a market in Maracaibo, Venezuela. They can be up to 12 pounds in 6-8 weeks. Most crossbreed strains are sex linked, allowing for easy chick sexing. Miniatures are usually one-fifth to one-quarter the size of the standard breed, but they are expected to exhibit all of the standard breed's characteristics. Most breeds of chickens can fly for a short distance. They also lay a decent number of eggs, and, unlike many other breeds, they tend to continue laying through the cold winters. The breed name comes from combining the words “Australian Orpington.” The breed was once referred to as the Australian Utility Orpington.Then, the breed was called the Austral for a time, and, finally, the name was changed to Australorp. Asociacion Cántabra para la Conservación y Fomento de la Gallina Pedresa. Hybrids do not reliably pass on their features to their offspring, but are highly valued for their producing abilities. Over time the breeders were selecting the largest specimens until arriving in the current … Rhode Island Red rooster Typical broilers have white feathers and yellowish skin. Chickens breed in the spring and summer months. By the mid-20th century, however, meat production had outstripped egg production as a specialized industry. Most farms and homesteads use dual-purpose breeds for meat production. Sussex chickens as a breed reached America about 1912 and was recognized by the American Poultry Association in three varieties: Speckled (1914), Red (1914), and Light (1929). Mar 29, 2019 - Amazon.com: The Chicken Encyclopedia: An Illustrated Reference (9781603425612): Damerow, Gail: Books A female chicken is called a hen. Finland • Chile • Chickens, ducks, turkeys, and geese are of primary commercial importance, while guinea fowl and squabs are chiefly of local interest. It is raised in many places for its meat and eggs. Chicks are born covered in down, but they mature quickly, becoming fully feathered after four to five weeks. Most commercial broilers reach slaughter weight between four and seven weeks of age, although slower growing breeds reach slaughter weight at approximately 14 weeks of age. But each chicken breed is known for a pri­mary use. The chicken is perhaps the most widely domesticated fowl, raised worldwide for its meat and eggs. Although the observation of conspecifics engaged in a particular activity has clearly affected the tendency of the satiated chicken to engage in that activity,…. Modern high-volume poultry farms, with rows of cages stacked indoors for control of heat, light, and humidity, began to proliferate in Great Britain about 1920 and in the United States after World War II. Canada • Portugal • Farmers have developed numerous breeds and varieties to fulfill commercial requirements. Bresse is a white chicken that is fairly large. [3] Only some of the known breeds are included in these publications, and only those breeds are eligible to be shown competitively. Updates? India • Some may have complex or obscure histories, so inclusion here does not necessarily imply that a breed is predominantly or exclusively from those countries. Other chapters provide details on diseases, abnormalities, and parasites. Read 6 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. The comprehensive information in The Complete Encyclopedia of Chickens is organized into chapters on the history of keeping chickens, choosing chicks, breeds of chickens, housing, care, and feeding. Iceland • From addled to wind egg and crossed beak to zygote, the terminology of everything chicken is demystified in The Chicken Encyclopedia. Many breeds have always been kept for ornamental purposes, and others have been shifted from their original use to become first and foremost exhibition fowl, even if they may retain some inherent utility. China • Mar 7, 2012 - The Rhode Island Red is a breed of chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). The 208-page book provides information on care as … harv error: no target: CITEREFEkarius2007 (. Iran • Regardless, they make excellent chickens on even small farms. Feb 10, 2015 - The Barnevelder is a medium heavy breed of chicken named after the Dutch town of Barneveld. The Chicken Breed Selector: Standardised Breeds. Introduction • Chickens come in two sizes; • Standard or Large fowl • These are the normal size birds • Bantam –A miniature size chicken or duck, usually about ¼ of the regular size • Used mainly as ornamental birds • Most are miniature copies of the large breeds • Silkies have no large counterpart • Some do have good egg production • Eggs are small La Fleche The La Fleche breed is a dual purpose bird with its meat production quality being the main reason for breeding them. Chickens belonging to the same age cohort and sex are often kept together in industrial production settings. In the wild, they often scratch at the soil to search for seeds, insects and even animals as large as lizards, small snakes, or young mice. Members of free-ranging flocks may live for six to eight years under the best conditions, but most chickens used in the poultry industry serve as egg layers for two to three years before being slaughtered for their meat, with much of it being used in pet food. Chicken Breeds pages can be seen by clicking on the links below. Chicken, (Gallus gallus), any of more than 60 breeds of medium-sized poultry that are primarily descended from the wild red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus, family Phasianidae, order Galliformes) of India. Some breeds are raised mainly for meat: The generalist breeds used in barnyards worldwide are adaptable utility birds good at producing both meat and eggs. Spain • Chicken, (Gallus gallus), any of more than 60 breeds of medium-sized poultry that are primarily descended from the wild red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus, family Phasianidae, order Galliformes) of India. Interpet Publishing has launched, Mini Encyclopedia of Chicken Breeds & Care, the sixth in its pet encyclopedia series. Feleciano R. Bejar, Manuel J. Baylon, Jaime B. Fabillar, Lagrito Ebert B. Mante, Arturo A. Ultra, Reynaldo R. Aquino, Elvie T. Bejar (2012). Chicken, (Gallus gallus), any of more than 60 breeds of medium-sized poultry that are primarily descended from the wild red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus, family Phasianidae, order Galliformes) of India. Poultry, in animal husbandry, birds raised commercially or domestically for meat, eggs, and feathers. Eggs • The Asiatic Brahma, thought to have originated in the United States from birds imported from China, is popular for… about $5000 for a breeding pair. Laying chickens produce 300 to 340 eggs during the 12 to 13 months they are in lay. Domestic Animal Diversity Information System, http://www.rfp-europe.org/fileadmin/SITE_ERFP/country_reports/Crotia/CR_Croatia_2009.pdf, "Biodiversity in the CR/animals genetic resources", "Finnish National Animal Genetic Resources Program / Each country's work / Nordic conservation work / InnehĂĽll / Farm Animals / NordGens webbplats - Nordic Genetic Resource Center", Listing of European Poultry Breeds and Colours, 2013, Agricultural Research Council - The indigenous poultry breeds of SA, Ganaderia: Catálogo Oficial de Razas de Ganado de España. Saved by Ashley Cochran. Bulgaria • Slovakia • Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Serbia • Indonesia • Although many taxonomists and ornithologists consider it as a domesticated form of the wild red jungle fowl, some classify it as a subspecies of the red jungle fowl (i.e., G. gallus domesticus), whereas others, including the U.S. Department of Agriculture, classify the bird as G. domesticus. The market for chicken meat has grown dramatically since then, with worldwide exports reaching…, For example, domestic chickens that have eaten to satiation a particular source of food will start eating again if they observe other chickens feeding. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Other chapters provide details on diseases, abnormalities, and parasites. Mini Encyclopedia of Chicken Breeds and Care book. Domesticated for thousands of years, distinguishable breeds of chicken have been present since the combined factors of geographical isolation and selection for desired characteristics created regional types with distinct physical and behavioral traits passed on to their offspring. The pecking order is established within groups of female chicks by the 10th week of life. Subsequent ovulations may occur within an hour after the previous egg was laid, allowing some hens to produce as many as 300 eggs per year. Like other female birds, hens lay eggs. Chickens in captivity have been known to live for up to 30 years. Ukraine • It is of South-east Asian origin, and is among the oldest bantam breeds. Aside from having perhaps the best hairdos in all of chickendom, Appenzeller Spitzhauben chickens are hardy little birds that do great in the cold. [1], By place of origin: There is some debate about what the chicken’s scientific name should be. From … [1] They are also roughly divided by primary use, whether for eggs, meat, or ornamental purposes, and with some considered to be dual-purpose. But the Appenzeller Spit Egg laying is stimulated by the long stretches of daylight that occur during the warmer months; however, artificial lights placed in chicken coops can trigger a hen’s egg laying response throughout the year. South Africa • Kosovo • A male chicken is called a rooster or a cockerel. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Rhode Island Red rooster. Altercations, however, may also include pummeling with wings and scratching with claws. All chickens lay eggs, have edible meat, and possess a unique appearance. Cuba • There are hundreds of chicken breeds in existence. For most of that period, chickens were a common part of the livestock complement of farms and ranches throughout Eurasia and Africa. A true bantam has no large counterpart, and is naturally small. History. Mass production of chicken meat and eggs began in the early 20th century, but by the middle of that century meat production had outstripped... Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Sweden • The giant Indian appeared in Brazil from the cross of rooster cockerels with hicks and other breeds of chickens. Croatia • Black Chickens Chickens And Roosters Breeds Of Chickens Rooster Breeds Beautiful Birds Animals Beautiful Beautiful Chickens Chicken Breeds Rare Animals. Brazil • A chicken is a kind of domesticated bird. It is a rarely kept breed. Turkey • All chick­ens lay eggs, have ed­i­ble meat, and pos­sess a unique ap­pear­ance. They stand less than 70 cm (27.6 inches) tall and weigh approximately 2.6 kg (5.7 pounds) on average. Reproduction, anatomy, and plumage are also described in this encyclopedia. [1], In the 21st century, chickens are frequently bred according to predetermined breed standards set down by governing organizations. The chicken is perhaps the most widely domesticated fowl, raised worldwide for its meat and eggs. Chicken domestication likely occurred more than once in Southeast Asia and possibly India over the most recent 7,400 years, and the first domestications may have been for religious reasons or for the raising of fighting birds. They are usually kept by humans as livestock. France • Brown egg layers are coloured and weigh slightly more. A flock usually includes one dominant adult male, a few subdominant males, and two or more females that are carefully watched over by the dominant male. United Kingdom • At about six months, males produce viable sperm, and females produce viable eggs. Since the sport of cockfighting has been outlawed in the developed world, most breeds first developed for this purpose, called game fowl, are now seen principally in the show ring rather than the cock pit as fighting cocks. It is a yellowish buff colour, and the name is thought to derive from the colour of nankeen cotton from China. Chickens have a squat and rounded appearance. 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